(Roxb. ex Lamb.)
G. Don (Pinaceae) /
C. libani Barrel /
Pinus deodara Roxb.
Cedar, True Cedar
This was an important tree species in north India
for domestic and also for commercial appliances. Its wood
was as good as sal and teak. Oil was distilled from the
waste wood and from woodcarvings in earlier periods, which
was useful in relieving pains and rheumatic complaints. Oil
was useful for skin complaints including mange in horses in
ancient times. In a 20 per cent concentration made in castor
oil, it produced 100 per cent curative effect against
sarcoptic mange in buffalo-calves. It was also used
effectively against sarcoptic mange in dog, sheep, goat and
|It is found throughout the
western Himalayas from Afghanistan to Garhwal, at elevations
ranging from 1,200 m to 3,000 m above the sea level. It is
most common from 1,800 m to 2,600 m. In India deodar forests
are common from Kashmir to Garhwal and form the bulk of the
vegetation in these regions.
Morphology Description (Habit)
It is a large evergreen tree, often reaching 60 m in height.
It reaches 90 m in places where it is protected from
injuries. Branches are horizontal or slightly ascending or
descending, not whorled, but arising irregularly. The leaves
are 2.5 cm-5 cm long, dark green, three sided, glaucous or
silvery and sharply pointed. It is a monoecious plant,
although male and female cones appear on separate branches.
Dioecious trees are very rare. Female cones are
barrel-shaped and borne singly at the tip of the dwarf
shoots. Male cones are solitary at the end of the dwarf
shoots. They are cylindrical and 2.5 cm-4.5 cm in length.
Seeds are triangular with a broad wing.
Himalayan Cedarwood Oil contains two major sesquiterpenoids
a - and ▀- himachalenes1. Deodarone2
and deodardione3 are also isolated from the
The extract from the wood shows marked anti-inflammatory and
It has anti-rheumatic property.
Due to the high contents of heavy metals like zinc, copper,
manganese in pollen due to pollution, it causes allergy.
It is anti-inflammatory. Oil is rubbed on the painful parts
to remove the pain.
- Tetrahedron Lett.1961, 216.
- Tetrahedron Lett. 1973, 427.
- Tetrahedron Lett.1978, 34, 599.
- J. Ethnopharmacol., 1999, vol. 65(1), pp. 21-7.