The bael fruit tree is slow growing, of medium size, up to 12-15 m tall. A clear, gummy sap, resembling gum, exudes from wounded branches and hangs down in long strands, becoming gradually solid. It is sweet at first taste and then irritating to the throat. Mature leaves emit a disagreeable odor when bruised. Flowers are yellow in color fragrant and in clusters of 4 to 7 along the young branchlets, The fruit, round, oval, or oblong, 2 to 8 in (5-20 cm) in diameter, may have a thin, hard, woody shell or a more or less soft rind, gray-green until the fruit is fully ripe, when it turns yellowish.
Fruit, root-bark, leaves, rind, flowers
anti bilious, anti parasitical, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, aromatic, alterative, astringent; digestive stimulant, febrifuge, haemostatic, laxative, nutritive, stomachic, stimulant, tonic.
Actions and uses in ayurveda
Pravahika, agnimandya, grahniroga
Ripe fruit is sweet, aromatic, cooling, alterative and nutritive. Fresh fruit has laxative properties. Unripe fruit is astringent, digestive, stomachic, and constipative. Pulp is stimulant, antipyretic and antiscorbutic. Fresh juice is bitter and pungent.
Chemical studies have revealed the following properties in the roots: psoralen, xanthotoxin, O-methylscopoletin, scopoletin, tembamide, and skimmin; also decursinol, haplopine and aegelinol.
The bark contains tannin and the cournarin, aegelinol; also the furocourmarin, marmesin; umbelliferone, a hydroxy coumarin; and the alkaloids, fagarine and skimmianine.
Bitter, light-yellow oil extracted from the seeds is given in 1.5 g doses as a purgative. It contains 15.6% palmitic acid, 8.3% stearic acid, 28.7% linoleic and 7.6% linolenic acid. The seed residue contains 70% protein
The pulp also contains a balsam-like substance, and 2 furocoumarins-psoralen and marmelosin (C13H12O3), highest in the pulp of the large, cultivated forms.
The essential oil of the leaves contains d-limonene, 56% a-d-phellandrene, cineol, citronellal, citral; 17% p-cyrnene, 5% cumin aldehyde. The leaves contain the alkaloids O-(3,3-dimethylallyl)-halfordinol, N-2-ethoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethylcinnamide, N-2-methoxy-2-[4-(3',3'-dimethyalloxy) phenyll]ethylcinnamide, and N-2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-ethylcinnamamide.
Properties and action
Rasa: katu, tikta, kasaya
Guna: laghu, ruksha
Karma: dipana, pachana, grahi, vatkapha-hara, balya.
Decoction, Leaf-juice, powder
Therapeutic classification index
- Cardiovascular system: Decoctions of the root are taken to relieve palpitations of the heart. The leaves of Aegle Marmelos contained digoxin-like active principles which were found to be cardio active substances as indicated and confirmed by the pharmacological studies
- Respiratory system: The leaf decoction is said to alleviate asthma
- Digestive system: Decoctions of the root are taken to relieve, indigestion, and bowel inflammations; also to overcome vomiting. The unripe bael is most prized as a means of halting diarrhea and dysentery, which are prevalent in India in the summer months. The fresh ripe pulp of the higher quality cultivars, and the "sherbet" made from it, are taken for their mild laxative, tonic and digestive effects. A decoction of the unripe fruit, with fennel and ginger, is prescribed in cases of hemorrhoids. Claims have been made that it relieves chronic flatulent colic in patients suffering from chronic gastro-intestinal catarrh. It is helpful in sprue also. It also gives good results in amoebic dysentery.
- Skin: The bark decoction is administered in cases of malaria. It has been surmised that the psoralen in the pulp increases tolerance of sunlight and aids in the maintaining of normal skin color. It is employed in the treatment of leucoderma.
- Eye: A decoction of the flowers is used as eye lotion
- Nutrition and metabolism: it is a good source of vitamins
- Immunity system: The fruit, roots and leaves have antibiotic activity. The root, leaves and bark are used in treating snakebite
- Reproductive system: it is used in inflammation of uterus, leucorrhoea and puerperal diseases.
Food Value Per 100 g of Edible Portion of Bilv fruit
Capsule Bilv Giri contains pure and concentrated Bilv Giri
Dosage: one capsule twice a day.
Package 60 capsules
- Prof P.V Sharma, Dravya Guna Vigyana, Vol II, pg 455-457
- Dr.KM Nadkarni, The Indian Materia Medica, Vol.I, pg 45-49
- The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Of India, Part I, Vol.I, pg 27
- Supplement to Glossary Of Medicinal Plants by R.N Chopra, S.LNayar, I.C Chopra pg 3
- Glossary Of Medicinal Plants by R.N Chopra, S.LNayar, I.C Chopra pg 8